Friday, 18 August 2017

Prevent Accidents And Keep Clean Landscape Using Tree Services Companies

Some undesirable strong tree trunks might obstruct your own activity, and also an individual call for expert Sprinkler System Flower Mound Tree service, throughout such emergency circumstances constantly. From existing, acquiring rid regarding undesirable trees will be not just a challenging job, when you have professionals to assist you using the whole treatment. A Variety Of various other compared to getting rid regarding unnecessary trees, you can furthermore intend for you to remove dead trees with out encountering any kind of issue.

You is probably not mindful regarding this reality but tree maintenance could additionally aids you to conserve numerous dollars. These undesirable trees could ruin the wall surfaces as well as also drains along with passing time. In case anyone obtain to get rid involving unnecessary trees too as more choose for fort really worth tree trimming, next you are cost-free from investing cas h on many other allocations.

Simply similar to providing safety as well as preventing mishaps, these tree caring too as maintenance firms will surely keep sanitation, on section of customers. Overgrown Sprinkler System Flower Mound and within addition unnecessary trees will definitely develop the mess, as well as this will surely additionally assist throughout obstructing the visual appeal of your current attractive yard or perhaps excess landscape. make specific to contact fort worth tree pruning firms, as well as deal using a day also as occasion along with them.

It's crucial pertaining to you to understand the aspects regarding working along with fort worth tree service. As these trunks take serious quantities of effort too as old, pertaining to that will reason; an individual require suitable devices too as devices for getting rid regarding trees. They Will are usually educated well, too as utilize appropriate devices with regard to receiving rid of tree trunks securely.

Not merely protecting against wall surface splits, even so correct tree therapy and in addition companies will surely steer clear of any kind of type of much more mishaps coming from getting location. In case you have an old tree within your landscape, there are opportunities which a classic branch could drop fo r you anytime.

Monday, 3 July 2017

Video Marketing - Guidelines To Aid Advertise Your Video Correctly

More smart industrial marketers are recognizing the power of online video marketing. As a start-up hair salon business owner, repeat business means survival. Internet marketing will be the act of promoting products and services over the internet. How to Keep Track of Your BusinessHattie introduces i7 group review Jim Schell and also the first of the seven key ideas within this episode.

You seriously can't expect a scout to demonstrate up at your front door younger crowd won't spend his time checking up in your skills while you're on a schoolyard, so find a buddy who knows how you can a minimum of hold i7 group presentation a camera, and shoot a killer video! Your chances of getting scouted by at least the local club will surely increase. Even teenagers will make their particular video. To discover the missing content, try these steps:.

Simplicity - an excellent benefit of the SWOT 2x2 matrix is the actual fact that it is relatively simple and basic to comprehend -- you identify the strengths, weaknesses (internal) and then the opportunities and threats (external) that may be presented. Done properly you can increase your brand, ramp up traffic, increa se leads and raise sales. com/watch?v=RNfNDKYJ5f0.

Understand the Environment . It can bring your website and your business to totally new level. There are videos that receive a lot of traffic on a normal basis. It's best not to answer that question, the rhetoric would take too long.

Step 5: Stick to your social media strategy and take it out faithfully. Social media marketing may be the way ahead for online marketing, so if you want your company to become there once the dust settles, don't delay, take action now to sure your business survives and thrives. For tips and advice to aid you get the best Online Marketing Video strategies, go to his blog: Wealth Success Ventures. No matter how easy the task of social networking appears being it isn't in reality. and it takes just a few minutes a day.

Sunday, 2 July 2017

Benefits Of Linking Viral Videos To Your Social Media Accounts

Social Networking Sites, right now, are a few of the best places to build your Network Marketing business, if you know how. If you would like to dominate video marketing, you can find several basic steps which you need to be following that may help you've better outcomes. You simply need a PC device along using a quick web connection to be capable of match the changing upgrades. It just isn't necessary and is also not even recommended. In order for video marketing to arrange it should be properly implemented.

You can work with a program like Camtasia, or some similar ones which are free, in order to accomplish this successfully. Trust us, in the big event you can, and know that nothing is tough with optimziing or marketing your videos. They were asking for that visitor assist to digg their post to achieve as many people while they can and a generous contribution is going to be appreciated.

Carla Baldock focuses primarily on fast-tracking the success of home business entrepreneurs by sharing effective website marketing promotion strategies. Video marketing is definitely an effective online marketing service, which can contact thousands of people inside a short lifetime of time. Except I question myself and wonder if I can still produce the energy, I think its a few just going red light, "record" and leaning into it, but I must build motivation and this is a few hunkering down and saying, well, no more shitty gigs, no more young dickheads, no more hate around the scene, it flies all around me.

Include URL on the start of your description. If people can not trust in you then any efforts you put into social networking for business will be wasted. There are numerous products to decide on from, and also you only desire to sell i7 group presentation the very i7 Group best. So consider this the next time you produce a web video.

Top YouTube Marketing Tips - Increase Success Rates With Annotations and Playlist. The more efficient the merchandise distribution is the more sales and thus more profits. The more efficient the product distribution is the more sales and so more profits. This is largely due towards the fact that a shop itself sells practically everything that would be required to sustain a household--from hardware to furniture to lawn mowers to toiletries to appliances. This is a huge approach to build an army of online followers.

In Part II we'll discuss specific strategies for content, viral marketing, and SEO for industrial videos. Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and LinkedIn may be used for effective content marketing strategy. There are chances that you simply come across someone concentrating on the same offering as yours, but then also being in a community you can share your knowledge, opinions and views. Authenticity will be the currency that encourages trust, involvement, and engagement. This camcorder stays hidden within my purse away from my children,,,s hands!.

Saturday, 24 June 2017

Storage Protection Sprinkler Head Technology (excerpt) - Sprinkler Head, Tyco, Storage - Fire

20th century 70's and 80's warehouse to protect the development

Big drop type fire control sprinkler heads for special applications

The first warehouse specifically developed for the protection of sprinkler head is a large drop sprinkler head, the sprinkler head was developed Sprinkler System in the 20th century 70's, K coefficient is 161, its splash plate is designed to produce more large drops enhance the penetration and improve fire fighting performance. System design sprinkler head 15 can only meet the design requirements and safety coefficient is greatly enhanced. As developed this sprinkler head, the experts found that the warehouse for high risk, the measure of performance is the sprinkler sprinkler head nozzle size and caliber of work pressure and role, rather than water density area. Large drop sprinkler head is a significant advantage of the sprinkler head can be protected without the need for shelf storage shelves within the sprinkler head, sprinkler nozzle for the ordinary this is not possible.

? ESFR sprinkler head 80s in the 20th century, with the FM model Sprinkler System developed ESFR sprinkler heads, storage protection has reached a new level. In order to protect high-risk items used to store high-shelf storage, but do not use the shelves within the sprinkler head, while on the shelf to avoid mechanical damage within the sprinkler head, in particular, developed SM technology. With enhance d performance of ESFR sprinkler head, there has been a new and more rigorous use and installation requirements. Although the users and designers know that you can no longer use a shelf within the sprinkler head, but often neglect the more stringent installation requirements, the resulting problems have also plagued the storage industry.

New sprinkler head technology Until the 20th century, the early 90s for most of the sprinkler head storage technology to protect the most important changes are driven by the FM. 50 years in the 20th century they developed a standard sprinkler head, but also a large drop and ESFR sprinkler head of the developer. By policyholders in their efforts to meet the needs of mainly large-scale industrial operation. Then, by the Central Company (now Tyco fire equipment company) led sprinkler head needs of the user industry began its research and development.

Large caliber (ELO) fire c ontrol water jet strength / function area of sprinkler heads

ELO sprinkler head start is the central D64-type sprinkler heads. It was designed to use only one K161 sprinkler head, which can be generated under high water pressure in the lower water density, more cost-effective. In order to validate its performance, in the 20th century, the early 90s was an entity fires pilot projects. The basic process of this project is the original pilot project to repeat the warehouse, the only change is replaced by ELO sprinkler head, and at a lower injection pressure have the same density. In these experiments, ELO sprinkler head and the old sprinkler head not only play the same performance, but in addition to one of the tests are clearly better than the performance. In the design of the new warehouse protection, or no real reason to use K115 smaller sprinkler head, NFPA13 required density 14mm/min (0.34gpm/ft2) or higher, or greater use of K11.2 sprinkler head, illustrates this point.

Large-caliber special application type fire control sprinkler heads

Central has developed UltraK17 sprinkler head in order to lower the required pressure to achieve significant and large drop sprinkler head performance. FM carried out by entities in the fire test, the sprinkler head to protect the carton piled up on the shelves of plastic materials within the warehouse shelf without the need for sprinkler heads.

Large diameter hanging-type sprinkler head

As demands for higher pressure, the original K202ESFR sprinkler head is often difficult to bring the design, so central in the development of the K363 FM sprinkler head. ead-tyco-storage-fire-319d216be73.html

Friday, 23 June 2017

Home Remodeling

Before and After: Home Exteriors

Maximize curb appeal with an exterior makeover. See how these 24 facades went...

Mini Makeovers to Add Farmhouse Style

Use rural references, weathered finishes, vintage farm implements, and barnyar...

20 Weekend Projects Under $20

These 20 improvements may not cost a lot, but they'll make a big difference in...

Easy Ways to Add Character

With little time and little money, you can add lots of charm all around the...

Our Favorite Bathroom Upgrades

If you're planning a bathroom remodel, consider adding a few of these fabulous...

Weekend Projects for the Renter

Renters, take heed! Here are 15 simple temporary or take-it-with-you projects...

No-Fail Curb Appeal Updates (On a Budget)

Be the best home on the block for less. These budget curb appeal updates will...

A Passion for Old World Details

This storybook cottage took a new route back to the Old World, using today's...

Second-Level Home Additions

Everything you need to know about home additions, including second-story...

Bathroom Remodel for Under $5,000

Working with what they had and shopping smart helped these homeowners create a...

Modern Kitchen Remodel

See how removing a wall and adding modern style gave this kitchen a better...

Browse 1,000s of Floor Plans

Start Now

Get Free Quotes from Local Contractors

Better Homes & Gardens Home Services provides you with free quotes from local contractors.

Local Remodeling Contractors

22 Mini-but-Mighty Remodels

Don't have the cash saved for a full-scale remodel? Pick one of these small,...
< br>Patio Ideas: Before & After Patio Makeovers

A gallery of inspiring before and after patio transformations.

Improve Your Home: 30 Weekend Projects

Spiff up every space in your home. Here are 30 quick do-it-yourself updates to...

Weekend Project Ideas for Indoors + Out

Deliver big splash for your remodeling cash with weekend projects that make...

Before and After Deck Makeovers

Add new life to a ho-hum deck with these fun makeover ideas.

Before-and-After Small-Home Exterior Makeovers

See how eight small homes gain serious character with creative exterior...

Storage for Open Floor Plans

Love open floor plans but worried about how to include practical and beautiful...

Build a Fireplace Surround

A new surround and gas insert can make a once-unsightly fireplace a functional...

Ultimate Bathroom Planning Guide

If you have plans to remodel a bathroom, start your project with our Ultimate...

Cool Ideas for Your Home

Add a unique touch and a dose of personal style to your home with these seven...

Trend Spotting with BHG: Paneling

Paneling has come a long way. See how to incorporate this hot trend into our...

How to Paint Kitchen Cabinets

Painting kitchen cabinets can update your kitchen without the cost or challeng...

Remodeling Projects That Add Big Value

Are you looking to invest in your home? Our home improvement experts share...

Entryway Makeovers

Look through this collection of before-and-after home exteriors to find...

Tuesday, 20 June 2017

John Deere Landscapes Unveils New Name as SiteOne Landscape Supply

ALPHARETTA, Ga.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--John Deere Landscapes today unveiled its new name and logo as SiteOne

Landscape Supply, effective October 19. The new brand represents the

next step for SiteOne as an independent company after Sprinkler System Installation its acquisition by

Clayton, Dubilier & Rice in December 2013. With over 460 locations in

the U.S. and Canada, SiteOne is the largest wholesale distributor of

landscape supplies for green industry professionals in North America,

including irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products,

landscape accessories, nursery goods, hardscapes, and outdoor lighting,

along with a broad array of services designed to help green industry

professionals operate and grow their businesses. SiteOne will formally

introduce customers to the new brand at the GIE+EXPO in Louisville,


"As a market leader, our vision is to make our customers the most

successful landscaping professionals in the green industry--and that's

what our new brand represents," said Doug Black, SiteOne's chief

executive officer. "We have over 2,500 passionate and knowledgeable

associates across North America, all focused on the success of our

customers. The new brand reflects our Sprinkler System Arlington unique position as the only

national full-line provider of landscaping products which, along with

the deep knowledge and state-of-the-art solutions that we offer, will

form our foundation for future growth."

SiteOne's tagline, "Stronger Together" defines its partnerships with

customers, associates, suppliers and communities, and its commitment to

excellence in product offerings and service delivery. "By working

together with our suppliers and c ustomers we can achieve great things

for all stakeholders," said Black.

The rebranding effort began shortly after the purchase of John Deere

Landscapes by Clayton, Dubilier & Rice. SiteOne performed an extensive

18-month branding process, which included gathering input from

associates, suppliers, customers and key stakeholders. The brand roll

out will be completed by December. "We have an exciting new look, with

the same exceptional associates who will continue to deliver the high

quality products and services our customers know and trust," Black said.

About SiteOne Landscape Supply LLC

SiteOne Landscape Supply

(formerly John Deere Landscapes) is North America's leading wholesale

distributor of landscape supplies for green industry professionals

including irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products,

landscape accessories, nursery goods, hardscapes, and outdoor lighting,

along with a broad array of services designed to help green industry

professionals operate and grow their businesses. With over 460 locations

in the U.S. and Canada, the broadest product and service offerings, and

over 2,500 knowledgeable associates, SiteOne is committed to making its

customers the most successful landscape professionals in the green


Monday, 19 June 2017

California's drought-resistant garden |

A home with a garden of drought-tolerant plants is seen in Beverly Hills, April 8, 2015. California's cities and towns would be required to cut their water usage by up to 35 percent or face steep fines under proposed new rules released Tuesday, the...more

Reuters /

Wednesday, April 08, 2015

A home with a garden of drought-tolerant plants is seen in Beverly Hills, April 8, 2015. California's cities and towns would be required to cut their water usage by up to 35 percent or face steep fines under proposed new rules released Tuesday, the state's first-ever mandatory cutbacks in urban water use amid ongoing drought.

REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson


Sunday, 18 June 2017

From landfill to landscape -

LONDON, England (CNN) -- A landscape restoration of a rubbish dump has won the Energy, Waste and Recycling category at the 2008 World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, Spain.

Spanish architects Batlle and Roig have returned a 150 hectare rubbish dump back to nature.

Spanish architects Batlle and Roig have returned a 150 hectare rubbish dump back to nature.

"La Vall d'en Joan" (The Valley of Joan) project, designed by Spanish architects Batlle and Roig, has transformed a 150 hectare site in the Garraf Natural Park, south-west of Barcelona into a green terraced agricultural landscape.

In awarding the prize, judges Luis Mansilla -- Mansilla + Tunon architects -- and Martin Keiding -- editor-in-chief of Arkitektur DK -- described the scheme as: "a perfect example of bringing dead nature back to lif e by converting rubbish into a beautiful piece of landscape architecture...using few and humble means".

Joan Roig of Batlle and Roig Architects told CNN: "The idea was to create a system of hills and banks in a way that would avoid erosion from water and to give the rubbish dump back to nature with a natural design."

Work to transform the site -- the largest landfill in Spain -- began in 2000 and was completed earlier this year. It is a striking redrawing of a previously scarred and polluted landscape.

The landfill has been servicing Barcelona's metropolitan area for over 30 years. More than 20 million tons of rubbish was spread around the valley before the site was closed in 2006. In some places, you would have to dig down over 100 meters before you found soil again.

But this isn't just a cosmetic makeover. There is an underground drainage system on site which filters contaminated waste fluids. Part of this recycled water is then used to irrigate the par k. "The whole project is very sustainable," Roig said.

Furthermore, the dump is also utilizing the bio gas that is emitted to provide electricity.

Some of the rubbish has remained above ground. Housed in large steel cages which flank the Sprinkler Installation entrance to the site, Roig says they serve as a permanent reminder to visitors of the site's previous life.

Judge, Martin Keiding told CNN: "It's a very beautiful and simple design. It is landscape architecture that is ins piring. It is a very good example that everyone could look at and say: 'We could do the same.' This competition is about pointing out good examples that could inspire architects."

Batlle and Roig's winning design was one of eight short-listed projects in the Energy, Waste and Recycling category, which was notable for the variety of entries.

They range from state of the art, hi-tech plans such as the Digital Beijing designed by Studio Pei Zhu and Urbanus, right down to low-cost, primitive ventures like the Community Cooker devised by Kenyan company, Planning Systems Services.

The communal cooker is turning rubbish into fuel to feed residents of one of Africa's biggest slums -- Kibera -- on the outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya. The project was highly commended by the judges.

"Sustainability is a very important issue and so are the questions about rubbish, especially in Third World countries," Keiding said. "The community cooker is a way of introducing a solution directly into the society."

Keiding, himself a trained architect, believes that Energy, Waste and Recycling is the most important category at the inaugural World Architecture Festival. "We are facing big problems, so it is a great opportunity for architects to work seriously with this problem on many different levels.

"I think flashy executive Sprinkler System Installation Rockwall buildings are interesting in one sense but they are not interesting if they are not dealing seriously with this matter. In my opinion you can throw them out. We have to be far more serious about integrating aspects of sustainability into architecture."

Both Mansilla and Keiding noted tha t engineering and architecture had to combine to deal with issues concerning waste and recycling. They said that achieving sustainability was a difficult task but it also represented a great opportunity for architects to contribute to the sphere.

All About Architecture o Nature and the Environment

Friday, 16 June 2017

EU Energy Policy Blog

May 5th, 2015 by Pierre Nol, University of Cambridge

It is hard to think of an antitrust case as geopolitically charged as the one announced in Brussels last week against Gazprom. The Russian state-owned company stands accused of anti-competitive practices allowing it to charge "unfair prices" in several EU countries.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy Policy | No Comments

April 20th, 2015 by Anne Neumann, Universitt Potsdam and DIW Berlin

Have you ever heard the story of long-term contracts withering away, washed away by the emerging competition in regional, if not global natural gas markets? And have you really believed that in an industry characterized by multi-billion US-$ investments, "perfect competition" should assure long-term supply security? Ten years ago, when I started to work on long-term contracts in the natural gas industry, I believed in these stories too. Until I started to collect data and assembled what is now the largest dat abase on long-term contracts world-wide. Continue reading

Posted in Gas | No Comments

January 28th, 2015 by Jacques Delors, Notre Europe

The energy sector is no exception to the current weakness of the European political system, and also of national systems, marked by pervasive short- termism and an increasing tendency for European countries and citizens to look inwards. The immediacy of politics and financial profit outweigh all other factors. Countries are isolating themselves due to the structural issues affect- ing Europe, which run much deeper than European institutional challenges. The European people are afraid of globalisation and of the future. Under pres- sure from political events and economic and social uncertainty, they are losing the feeling of having a common heritage - of living and of knowing how to live together.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy Policy | No Comments

December 26th, 2014 by Fereidoon Sioshansi, EEnergy Informer

The International Energy Agency released its annual World Energy Outlook 2014 in mid-November with the usual fanfare. As always, it is worth a read, for its breadth and depth even if parts read repetitive of prior projections. The overwhelming message, now repeated enough number of times by enough forecasts of the future, is the clear bifurcation of global energy demand growth among the haves and have nots, the north and the south, with China rapidly joining the former.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy Policy | No Comments

December 14th, 2014 by Severin Borenstein, Haas Business School, UC Berkekey

There's a lot of talk in California these days about imposing fixed monthly charges on residential electricity bills. The large investor-owned utilities in California have small or no fixed charges,instead collecting all of their revenue from households through usage-based charges, called volumetric pricing.

Continue reading

Posted in Electricity, Energy Policy | No Comments

December 4th, 2014 by Jean-Michel Glachant, European University Institute

No EU policy can be perfect - it will inevitably be a compromise between a good cause and a due cause. However, we are now at a critical turning point, as several pillars of former Best Electrician Service in College Station Barroso's EU energy policy have already collapsed, prompting an update or an entire overhaul.

Continue reading

Posted i n Climate Change, Electricity, Energy Policy | No Comments

November 30th, 2014 by Daniel Scholten, Delft University of Technology

EU policies to integrate energy markets, promote renewable energy, and diversify supply are aiming at a competitive and sustainable European power sector. The resulting dynamics should largely affect the systems of electricity generation, transportation and storage in Europe: With increasing market integration come new new competitors; coal and gas power plants face new renewable challengers domestically and abroad; and diversification towards new suppliers will bring new trade routes and infrastructure. All in all, EU policies to integrate power markets, promote renewables, and diversify supply will thus profoundly reshuffle national energy assets. The impact of the three EU policies is thus likely to have considerable 'geopolitical' implications for individual member states and affect their capability to negotiate, agree on, and/or imp lement further measures. We conduct a thought experiment which explores potential benefits and losses for individual member states implicit to Europe's 'energy transition', and the political concerns which may be expected to arise as a consequence. Continue reading

Posted in Electricity, Energy Policy | No Comments

November 16th, 2014 by Marco Siddi, University of Edinburgh

Eight years ago, shortly after German and Russian leaders agreed on the construction of Nord Stream, then Polish defence minister Radoslaw Sikorski Best Electrician Service in College Station called it "the Molotov-Ribbentrop pipeline". Sikorski compared the project to the 1939 pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which partitioned East-Central Europe. Nord Stream, he argued, would allow Germany to secure its gas impor ts from Russia while Moscow simultaneously turned off the tap and blackmailed governments in East-Central Europe. However, contrary to Sikorski's predictions, during the current crisis in Ukraine the pipeline has allowed Germany to take a tougher stance towards Russia than most EU member states. Continue reading

Posted in Energy Policy | No Comments

November 4th, 2014 by Jacques de Jong, Clingendael International Energy Programme

European power markets are being confronted with an unprecedented transition process toward a low-carbon power system. The speed and complexity of this shift are raising serious challenges and operational difficulties. The successful increase in the deployment of variable renewable electricity technologies is bringing the EU objective of raising the share of these technologies in its energy mix to 20% by 2020 closer to an attainable reality. But there are deep concerns about the continuing impacts of this transition, especially a s it is further expanded to include a substantially larger share of renewables by 2050.

Continue reading

Posted in Electricity, Energy Policy | No Comments

October 28th, 2014 by Raphael Heffron, University of Leeds

In essence, effective and efficient energy law and policy will balance energy economics, energy security and climate change mitigation to deliver the best outcome to society. However, if one examines energy law and policy in more detail often it is just one of these points that dominates the energy agenda; more often than not it is economics.

Continue reading

Posted in Energy Policy | No Comments

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

BRIEF-Henkel sees aggressive retail market landscape in Germany| Reuters

Nov 11 Henkel

* CEO says Q3 sales at adhesives business were positive in

north america, negative in china

* CEO says we see a very aggressive retail market landscape

in europe, especially in Germany

Further company coverage:




var median = (relatedItemsTotal / 2);

var $relatedContentGroupOne = $(' ul');

var $relatedContentGroupTwo = $(' ul');

$.each($relatedItems, function(k,v) {

if (k + 1 Also In Earnings Season href=''>

Monday, 12 June 2017

Take the Epsom Salt Gardening Challenge

--(BUSINESS WIRE)--With spring officially underway, the Epsom

Salt Council has a challenge for gardeners: try Epsom salt on some

of your plants to see the difference. Submit photos of your results, and

you could win a year's supply of Epsom salt and other prizes, including

a $500 gift card from Gardener's

Supply. See the Official Rules at

for full details.

"Seeing is believing, and we've seen tests

and heard from experts

about how Epsom

salt is an Sprinkler System Installation Greenville inexpensive way to help start or improve your garden,"

said Jim Hill, the Epsom Salt Council's President. "We can't wait to see

the results from gardeners throughout the country."

Here's how the Epsom Salt Gardening Challenge works: Gardeners should

put Epsom salt on just some of their plants - peppers, tomatoes,

houseplants and roses - and grow others without Epsom salt. As the

summer unfolds, email photos of both to,

one of a plant grown with Epsom salt and one photo of the same type of

plant grown without Epsom salt. On the email subject line, state the

plant category (peppers, tomatoes, roses or houseplants). Deadline is

Aug. 1. The contest is open to le gal residents of the 50 U.S. and D.C.

who are 18 years of age or older, except residents of New Jersey, North

Dakota, Tennessee, Maryland and Vermont.

The Epsom Salt Council will post the photos to its website,

and its Facebook page,,

before selecting a winner. The entries will be judged based on the

healthy appearance of the plant, whether the plants' appearances support

Epsom salt as a source of nutrition, and the overall beauty of the

composition. The grand-prize winner will get a year's supply of Epsom

salt - 52 one-pound cartons - an Epsom Salt Council gardening hat and a

$500 gift card to Gardener's Supply. (

Second prize will receive 24 one-pound cartons of Epsom salt, the

gardening hat and a $100 gift card to Gardener's Supply. Third prize

will receive 12 one-pound cartons of Epsom salt, the gard ening hat and a

$50 gift card to Gardener's Supply.

Nine other winners will receive a case of 12 one-pound cartons of Epsom

salt and the gardening hat.

Epsom salt - actually magnesium sulfate - has key nutrients for plants

and vegetables. It helps seeds germinate, makes plants grow bushier,

produces more flowers, increases chlorophyll production and deters

pests, such as slugs and voles. While it is not intended to replace your

regular fertilizer, it will provide vital nutrients to supplement your

regular fertilizer.

Here are some tips

for using Epson salt to grow the plants:

Garden Startup: Sprinkle 1 cup per 100 square feet. Mix into

soil before planting.

Peppers: Mix 1 tablespoon of Epsom salt with a gallon of water

and apply as a foliar spray at bloom time, then again 10 dayslater.

Tomatoes: Add 1 tablespoon diluted in water per foot of plant

height per plant; apply every two weeks.

Houseplants: 2 tablespoons per gallon of water; feed plants


Roses: Add 1 tablespoon diluted in a gallon of water per foot

of plant height every two weeks. Also scratch 1/2 cup into soil at

base to encourage flowering canes and healthy new basal cane growth.

Before planting, soak bushes in 1/2 cup of Epsom salt per gallon of

water to help roots recover. Add a tablespoon of Epsom salt to each

hole at planting time. Spray with Epsom salt solution weekly (1 Tbsp

per gallon of water) to help discouragepests.

Shrubs (evergreens, azaleas, rhododendron): Add 1 tablespoon

per 9 square feet by diluting in water. Apply over root zone every 2-4


Lawns: Apply 3 pounds for every 1,250 square feet with a

spreader, or dilute in water and apply with a sprayer.

Trees: Apply 2 tablespoons per 9 square feet by diluting in

water. Apply over the root zone three times annually.

Sage: Do not apply! This herb is one of the few plants that

doesn't like Epsom salt.

Although magnesium and sulfur occur naturally in soil, they can be

depleted by various conditions, including heavy agricultural use. Unlike

most commercial fertilizers, which build up in the soil over time, Epsom

salt is not persistent so you can't overuse it.

"Magnesium and sulfur are building blocks for plants," said Hill, the

Epsom Salt Council's president. "We think you'll see a real difference."

About Gardener's Supply

Gardener's Supply was founded in 1983 by a handful of enthusiastic

Vermont gardeners. Today, it serves millions of gardeners nationwide,

offering everything from seedstarting supplies and garden furniture to

flower supports and garden carts. Though the company has grown, it

remains passionately committed to providing garden-tested,

earth-friendly products that will help customers have more fun and

success in their gardens. To learn more, please visit

About Epsom salt

Epsom salt - actually magnesium sulfate - is one of the most versatile

household products, with uses ranging from creating at-home spa

treatments to soothing achy muscles to helping start or improve gardens.

It's been used therapeutically for hundreds of years, and it's gaining a

new generation of fans looking for a safe, economical alternative in a

sea of expensive, over-the-counter remedies. Epsom salt is easy to use,

easy to find in your local pharmacy or grocery store and it costs Sprinkler System Installation Greenville about

the same per use as a cup of coffee.

To learn more, please go to,

visit us on ,

or contact Peter Smolowitz, (704) 916-6163,

Contest Rules

Must be a legal resident of the 50 U.S./D.C. (except NJ, ND, TN, MD and

VT), 18 years of age or older. Void in NJ, ND, TN, MD, VT and where

prohibited. Ends 8/1/11. To enter, submit your photos along with your

name, address, phone number and age by email to:

by 8/1/11 or can be mailed to Epsom Salt Gardening Challenge Entry, P.O.

Box 7449, Prospect Heights, IL 60070. Mail in entries must be postmarked

by 8/1/11. Limit one entry in each plant category (peppers, tomatoes,

houseplants and roses) per person/email address regardless of entry

method. One (1) First Prize: $500 gift card for Gardener's Supply, a

year's supply of Epsom salt (awarded as 52 one-pound cartons), and an

Epsom Salt Council gardening ha t, ARV $588. One (1) Second Prize: $100

gift card for Gardener's Supply, 24 one-pound cartons of Epsom salt, and

a gardening hat, ARV $146. One (1) Third Prize: $50 gift card for

Gardener's Supply, 12 one-pound cartons of Epsom salt, and a gardening

hat, ARV $98. Nine (9) honorable mentions will each receive: 12

one-pound cartons of Epsom salt and an Epsom Salt Council gardening hat,

ARV $28. Entries and photos must comply with the submission

requirements. For full details and Official Rules go to

Saturday, 10 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation).

Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colors--and in many different types, such as watercolor, synthetic, etc. Paint is typically stored, sold, and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid.

Dried green pai nt


1 History

2 Components

2.1 Vehicle

2.1.1 Binder or film former

2.1.2 Diluent or solvent or thinner

2.2 Pigment and filler

2.3 Additives

3 Color-changing paint

4 Art

5 Application

6 Product variants

7 Failure of a paint

8 Dangers

9 See also

10 References

11 Further reading


A charcoal and ochre cave painting of Megaloceros from Lascaux, France

In 2001 and 200 4, South African archeologists reported finds in Blombos Cave of a 100,000-year-old human-made ochre-based mixture that could have been used like paint.[1][2] Further excavation in the same cave resulted in the 2011 report of a complete toolkit for grinding pigments and making a primitive paint-like substance.[2][3]Cave paintings drawn with red or yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide, and charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago.

A piece of Giant clam shell used to hold ochre paint in pre-dynastic ancient Egypt

Ancient colored walls at Dendera, Egypt, which were exposed for years to the elements, still possess their brilliant color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with a gummy substance, and applied them separately from each other without any blending or mixture. They appear to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the area entirely with white, then traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge.

Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been done prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.

Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance w ould harden and adhere to the surface it was applied to. Pigment was made from plants, sand, and different soils. Most paints used either oil or water as a base (the diluent, solvent or vehicle for the pigment).

A still extant example of 17th-century house oil painting is Ham House in Surrey, England, where a primer was used along with several undercoats and an elaborate decorative overcoat; the pigment and oil mixture would have been ground into a paste with a mortar and pestle. The process was done by hand by the painters and exposed them to lead poisoning due to the white-lead powder.

In 1718, Marshall Smith invented a "Machine or Engine for the Grinding of Colours" in England. It is not known precisely how it operated, but it was a device that increased the efficiency of pigment grinding dramatically. Soon, a company called Emerton and Manby was advertising exceptionally low-priced paints that had been ground with labour-saving technology:

One Pound of Colou r ground in a Horse-Mill will paint twelve Yards of Work, whereas Colour ground any other Way, will not do half that Quantity.

By the proper onset of the Industrial Revolution, paint was being ground in steam-powered mills and an alternative to lead-based pigments was found in a white derivative of zinc oxide. Interior house painting increasingly became the norm as the 19th century progressed, both for decorative reasons and because the paint was effective in preventing the walls rotting from damp. Linseed oil was also increasingly used as an inexpensive binder.

In 1866, Sherwin-Williams in the United States opened as a large paint-maker and invented a paint that could be used from the tin without preparation.

It was not until the stimulus of World War II created a shortage of linseed oil in the supply market that artificial resins, or alkyds, were invented. Cheap and easy to make, they also held the color well and lasted for a long time.[4]



The vehicle is composed of the binder; or, if it is necessary to thin the binder with a diluent like solvent or water, it is the combination of binder + diluent.[5][6] In this case, once the paint has dried or cured very nearly all of the diluent has evaporated and only the binder is left on the coated surface. Thus, an important quantity in coatings formulation is the "vehicle solids", sometimes called the "resin solids" of the formula. This is the proportion of the wet coating weight that is binder, i.e. the polymer backbone of the film that will remain after drying or curing is complete.

Binder or film former

The binder is the film-forming component of paint.[7] It is the only component that is always present among all the various types of formulations. Many binders are too thick to be applied and must be thinned. The type of thinner, if presen t, varies with the binder.

The binder imparts properties such as gloss, durability, flexibility, and toughness.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds, acrylics, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE), polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, silanes or siloxanes or oils.

Binders can be categorized according to the mechanisms for film formation. Thermoplastic mechanisms include drying and coalescence. Drying refers to simple evaporation of the solvent or thinner to leave a coherent film behind. Coalescence refers to a mechanism that involves drying followed by actual interpenetration and fusion of formerly discrete particles. Thermoplastic film-forming mechanisms are sometimes described as "thermoplastic cure" but that is a misnomer because no chemical curing reactions are required to knit the film. Thermosetting mechanisms, on the other hand, are true curing mechanism that involve chemical reaction(s) among the polymers that make up the binder.[8]

Thermoplastic mechanisms: Some films are formed by simple cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they resoften or liquify if reheated.

Paints that dry by solvent evaporation and contain the solid binder dissolved in a solvent are known as lacquers. A solid film forms when the solvent evaporates. Because no chemical crosslinking is involved, the film can re-dissolve in solvent; as such, lacquers are unsuitable for applications where chemical resistance is important. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent. Performance varies by formulation, but lacquers generally tend to have better UV resistance and lower corrosion resistance than comparable systems that cure by polymerization or coalescence.

The paint type known as Emulsion in the UK and Latex in the United States is a wat er-borne dispersion of sub-micrometer polymer particles. These terms in their respective countries cover all paints that use synthetic polymers such as acrylic, vinyl acrylic (PVA), styrene acrylic, etc. as binders.[9] The term "latex" in the context of paint in the United States simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber from the rubber tree is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Such paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint cannot redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it. The residual surfactants in paint, as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water. The general term of latex paint is usually used in the United States, while the term emulsion paint is used for the same products in the UK and the term latex paint is not used at all.

Thermosetting mechanisms: Paints that cure by polymerization are generally one- or two-package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction, and cure into a crosslinked film. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two-package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.[10]

The "drying oils", counter-intuitively, actually cure by a crosslinking reaction even if they are not put through an oven cycle and seem to simply dry in air. The film formation mechanism of the simplest examples involve first evaporation of solvents followed by reaction with oxygen from the environment over a period of days, weeks and even months to create a crosslinked network.[5] Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category. Oxidative cure coatings are catalyzed by metal complex driers such as cobalt naphthenate.

Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, generally for industrial purposes. UV curing paints, for example, enable formulation with very low amounts of solvent, or even none at all. This can be achieved because of the monomers and oligomers used in the coating have relatively very low molecular weight, and are therefore low enough in viscosity to enable good fluid flow without the need for additional thinner. If solvent is present in significant amounts, generally it is mostly evaporated first and then crosslinking is initiated by ultraviolet light. Similarly, powder coatings contain little or no solvent. Flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after electrostatic application of the dry powder.[11]

Combination mechanisms: So-called "catalyzed" lacquers" or "crosslinking latex" coatings are designed to form films by a combination of methods: c lassic drying plus a curing reaction that benefits from the catalyst. There are paints called plastisols/organosols, which are made by blending PVC granules with a plasticiser. These are stoved and the mix coalesces.

Diluent or solvent or thinner

The main purposes of the diluent are to dissolve the polymer and adjust the viscosity of the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It also controls flow and application properties, and in some cases can affect the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. To spread heavier oils (for example, linseed) as in oil-based interior house paint, a thinner oil is required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily--once the solvent has evaporated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface.

This component is optional: some paints have no diluent.

Water is the main diluent for water-borne paints, even t he co-solvent types.

Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of organic solvents as the diluent, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and white spirit. Specific examples are organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents.

Pigment and filler

Main article: Pigment

Pigments are granular solids incorporated in the paint to contribute color. Fillers are granular solids incorpo rate to impart toughness, texture, give the paint special properties, or to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments.

Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fixe, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic pyrogenic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.

Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, barytes, clay, etc. Floor paints that must resist abrasion may contain fine quart z sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand, some paints contain large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.

Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with titanium white (titanium dioxide), before lead was banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silica/alumina/zirconium for various reasons, such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film.[12]

Micaceous Iron Oxide (MIO) is another alternative to lead for protection of steel, giving more protection against water and light damage than most paints. When MIO pigments are ground into fine particles, most cleave into shiny layers, which reflect light, thus minimising UV degradation and protecting the resin binder. Most pigments used in paint tend to be spherical, but lamellar pigments, such as glass flake and MIO have overlapping plates, which impede the path of water molecules.[13] For optimum performance MIO should have a high content of thin flake-like particles resembling mica. ISO 10601 sets two levels of MIO content.[14] MIO is often derived from a form of hematite.


Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in small amounts, yet provide a significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), bioc ides to fight bacterial growth, and the like.

Additives normally do not significantly alter the percentages of individual components in a formulation.[15]

Color-changing paint

Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is applied or removed, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in aquaria and novelty/promotional thermal cups and straws. These materials are used to make eyeglasses.

Color-changing paints can also be made by adding halochrome compounds or other organic pigments. One patent[16] cites use of these indicators for wall coating applications for light colored paints. When the paint is wet it is pink in color but upon drying it regains its original white color. As cited in patent, this property of the paint enabled two or more coats to be applied on a wall pr operly and evenly. The previous coats having dried would be white whereas the new wet coat would be distinctly pink. Ashland Inc. introduced foundry refractory coatings with similar principle in 2005[17][18] for use in foundries.

Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body.[19] Electrochromic paints can be applied to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is applied across the film itself. This new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passen ger airplane windows.


Main article: Painting

Watercolors as applied with a brush

Since the time of the Renaissance, siccative (drying) oil paints, primarily linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of paints in fine art applications; oil paint is still common today. However, in the 20th century, water-based paints, including watercolors and acrylic paints, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex paints. Milk paints (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are still available today. Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of raw egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax-based paints. Gouache is a variety of opaque watercolor that was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript illuminations. The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli and the binder made from either gum arabic or egg white. Gouache, also known as 'designer color' or 'body color' is commercially available today.

Poster paint has been used primarily in the creation of student works, or by children.

The "painter's mussel", a European freshwater mussel. Individual shell valves were used by artists as a small dish for paint.


Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.

As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the object being painted). This is called "powder coating" an object.

As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. The paint s ticks to the object. This is called "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:

The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object touches the object being painted;

The distribution of the paint is uniform, so there are no sharp lines;

It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint;

A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object being painted;

Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules.

In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers, blades, scrapers, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers and thumbs.

Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles to be attached, allowing painting at different heights. Generally, roller application requires two coats for even colo r. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.

Using the finish flat one would most likely use a 1/2" nap roller

Using the finish eggshell one would most likely use a 3/8" nap roller

Using the finish satin or pearl one would most likely use a 3/8" nap roller

Using the finish semi-gloss or gloss one would most likely use a 3/16" nap roller


After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time". The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or open time prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings.

Paint app lication by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, and the paint is turned into small droplets that travel to the article to be painted. Alternate methods are airless spray, hot spray, hot airless spray, and any of these with an electrostatic spray included. There are numerous electrostatic methods available.

Dipping used to be the norm for objects such as filing cabinets, but this has been replaced by high speed air turbine driven bells with electrostatic spray. Car bodies are primed using cathodic elephoretic primer, which is applied by charging the body depositing a layer of primer. The unchanged residue is rinsed off and the primer stoved.

Many paints tend to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom, and require mixing before use. Some paint outlets have machines for mixing the paint by shakin g the can vigorously for a few minutes.

The opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a drawdown card.

Water-based paints tend to be the easiest to clean up after use; the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.

Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color.

To dispose of paint it can be dried and disposed of in the domestic waste stream, provided that it contains no prohibited substances (see container). Disposal of liquid paint usually requires special handling and should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations.[21][22]

Product variants

A collection of cans of paint and variants

A huge collection of different kinds of spray cans, markers, paints and inks in the underground graffiti shop. Russia, Tver City, 2011.

Primer is a preparatory coating put on materials before applying the paint itself. The primed surface ensures better adhesion of the paint, thereby increasing the durability of the paint and providing improved protection for the painted surface. Suitable primers also may block and seal stains, or hide a color that is to be painted over.

Emulsion paints are water-based paints in which the paint material is dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water. For suitable purposes this has advantages in fast drying, low toxicity, low cost, easier application, and easier cleaning of equipment, among other factors.

Flat Finish paint is generally used on ceilings or walls that are in bad shape. This finish is useful for hiding imperfections in walls and it is economical in effectively covering relatively great areas. However this finish is not easily washable and is subject to staining.

Matte Finish is generally similar to flat finish, but such paints commonly offer superior washability and coverage. (See Gloss and matte paint.)

Eggshell Finish has some sheen, supposedly like that of the shell on an egg. This finish provides great washability, but is not very effective at hiding imperfections on walls and similar surfaces. Eggshell finish is valued for bathrooms because it is washable and water repellent, so that it tends not to peel in a wet environment.

Pearl (Satin) Finish is very durable in terms of washability and resistance to moisture, even in comparison to eggshell finish. It protects walls from dirt, moisture and stains. Accordingly, it is exceptionally valuable for bathrooms, furniture, and kitchens, but it is shinier than eggshell, so it is even more prone to show imperfections.

Semi-Gloss Finish typically is used on trim to emphasise detail and elegance, and to show off woodwork, such as on doors and furniture. It provides a shiny surface and provides good protection from moisture and stains on walls. Its gloss does however emphasise imperfections on the walls and similar surfaces. It is popular in schools and factories where washabili ty and durability are the main considerations.[23]

Varnish and shellac are in effect paints without pigment; they provide a protective coating without substantially changing the color of the surface, though they can emphasise the colour of the material.

Wood stain is a type of paint that is formulated to be very "thin", meaning low in viscosity, so that the pigment soaks into a material such as wood rather than remaining in a film on the surface. Stain is mainly dissolved pigment or dye plus binder material in solvent. It is designed to add color without providing a surface coating.

Lacquer is a solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish. Usually it is a rapidly drying formulation.

Enamel paint is formulated to give an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Some enamel paints contain fine glass powder or metal flake instead of the color pigments in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint sometimes is mixed with varni sh or urethane to improve its shine and hardness.

A glaze is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency, as in faux painting and for some artistic effects.

A roof coating is a fluid that sets as an elastic membrane that can stretch without harm. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used in roof restoration.

Fingerpaints are formulations suitable for application with the fingers; they are popular for use by children in primary school activities.

Inks are similar to paints, except that they are typically made using finely ground pigments or dyes, and are not designed to leave a thick film of binder. They are used largely for writing or calligraphy.

Anti-graffiti coatings are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti artists or vandals. There are two categories of anti-graffiti coatings: sacrificial and non-bonding:

Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by washing the surface with high-pressure water that removes the graffiti together with the coating (hence the term "sacrificial"). After removal of the graffiti, the sacrificial coating must be re-applied for continued protection. Such sacrificial protective coatings are most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean.

Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that do not bond strongly to paints used for graffiti. Graffiti on such a surface can be removed with a solvent wash, without damaging either the underlying surface or the protective non-bonding coating. These coatings work best on smooth surfaces, and are especially useful on decorative surfaces such as mosaics or painted murals, which might be expected to suffer harm from high pressure sprays.

Anti-climb paint is a non-drying paint that appears norma l but is extremely slippery. It is useful on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.

Anti-fouling paint, or bottom paint, prevents barnacles and other marine organisms from adhering to the hulls of ships.

Insulative paint or insulating paint, reduces the rate of thermal transfer through a surface it's applied to. One type of formulation is based on the addition of hollow microspheres to any suitable type of paint.

Anti-slip paint contains chemicals or grit to increase the friction of a surface so as to decrease the risk of slipping, particularly in wet conditions.

Road marking paint[24] is specially used to marking and painting road traffic signs and lines, to form a durable coating film on the road surface. It must be fast drying, provide a thick coati ng, and resist wear and slipping, especially in wet conditions.

Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence. In other words, it gives off visible light through fluorescence, phosphorescence, or radioluminescence.

Failure of a paint

The main reasons of paint failure after application on surface are the applicator and improper treatment of surface.

Defects or degradation can be attributed to:


This usually occurs when the dilution of the paint is not done as per manufacturers recommendation. There can be a case of over dilution and under dilution, as well as dilution with the incorrect diluent.


Foreign contaminants added without the manufacturers consent can cause various film defects.


Most commonly due to improper surface treatment before application and inherent moisture/dampness being present in the substrate. The degree of blistering can be ass essed according to ISO 4628 Part 2 or ASTM Method D714 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints).


Chalking is the progressive powdering of the paint film on the painted surface. The primary reason for the problem is polymer degradation of the paint matrix due to exposure of UV radiation in sunshine and condensation from dew. The degree of chalking varies as epoxies react quickly while acrylics and polyurethanes can remain unchanged for long periods.[25] The degree of chalking can be assessed according to International Standard ISO 4628 Part 6 or 7 or American Society of Testing and Materials(ASTM) Method D4214 (Standard Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films).


Cracking of paint film is due to the unequal expansion or contraction of paint coats. It usually happens when the coats of the paint are not allowed to cure/dry completely before the next coat is applied. The degree of cracking can be assessed according to International Standard ISO 4628 Part 4 or ASTM Method D661 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Cracking of Exterior Paints).


Erosion is very quick chalking. It occurs due to external agents like air,water etc. It can be evaluated using ASTM Method ASTM D662 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints). The generation of acid by fungal species can be a significant component of erosion of painted surfaces.[26] The fungusAureobasidium pullulansis known for damaging wall paints.[27]


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paint are considered harmful to the environment and especially for people who work with them on a regular basis. Exposure to VOCs has been related to organic solvent syndrome, although this relation has been somewhat controversial.[28] The controversial solvent 2-butoxyethanol is also used in paint production.[29]

In the US, environmental regul ations, consumer demand, and advances in technology led to the development of low-VOC and zero-VOC paints and finishes. These new paints are widely available and meet or exceed the old high-VOC products in performance and cost-effectiveness while having significantly less impact on human and environmental health.

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was reported ( published in 2009 ) in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. PCB is a global pollutant and was measured in the wastewater effluent from paint production. The widespread distribution of PCB suggests volatilization of this compound from surfaces, roofs etc. PCB is present in consumer goods including newspapers, magazines, and cardboard boxes, which usually contain color pigments. Therefore exist hypothesis that PCB congeners are present as byproduct in some current commercial pigments.[30]

See also


Aerosol paint

Anti-graff iti coating

Bresle method



Computer graphics


Environmental issues with paint

Faux painting



Gloss and matte paint

Interior radiation control coating


NACE International

Paint adhesion testing

Paint recycling

Paint (software)

Paint stripper

Powder coating


Road surface marking

Roof coating

Soy paint

Stain-blocking primer



^ Hillary Mayell (March 31, 2004). "Is Bead Find Proof Modern Thought Began in Africa?". National Geographic News. p.2. Retrieved May 20, 2016. Work published in 2001 described 28 bone tools and thousands of pieces of ocher--a mineral used to create paint for body decoration and cave painting--dated at roughly 70,000 years old found in Blombos Cave in South Africa. Two pieces of ocher appear to be marked with abst ract lines that could be viewed as artistic expression.

^ a b "Stone Age painting kits found in cave". The Guardian. October 13, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2016.

^ Stephanie Pappa (October 13, 2011). "Oldest Human Paint-Making Studio Discovered in Cave". Live Science. Retrieved October 14, 2011.

^ New York Times

^ a b Wicks, Zeno W., Jr.; Jones, Frank N.; Pappas, S. Peter; Wicks, Doublas A. (2004). Organic Coatings: Science and Technology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John WIley & Sons, Inc. p.5. ISBN978-0-471-69806-7.

^ Lambourne, R; Strivens, T A (1999). Paint and Surface Coatings: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Abington, Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited. p.6. ISBN1 85573 348 X.

^ "Vermeer's Palette: The Anatomy of Pigment and Binder". Retrieved 2015-10-21.

^ Baghdachi, J. "Polymer Systems and Film Formation Mechanisms in HIgh Solids, P owder and UV Cure Systems." (PDF). Society of Wood Science and Technology. Society of Wood Science and Technology. Retrieved 2016-01-13.

^ "Water-based Alchemy". Retrieved August 11, 2012.

^ Berendsen, A. M., & Berendsen, A. M. (1989). Marine painting manual. London: Graham & Trotman. ISBN 1-85333-286-0 p. 114.



^ "MIO Coatings - What Are They?" (PDF). Dulux Protective Coatings. 2009.

^ "ISO 10601:2007". Micaceous iron oxide pigments. International Organization for Standardization.

^, "Formulations, Fundamentals, Manipulation, Calculation and Data Management" p. 61.

^ Bramley, Christopher Sinjin. "Colour changing paint" (PDF). European Patent Application EP1400574. European Patent Office.

^ "Dramatic color change featur ed". New Materials International.

^ Horvath, Lee. "Coatings Go Beyond Appearance to Provide Quality Control". Foundry Technology. Foundry Management & Technology.

^ DailyTech - Nissan Develops Color Changing Paint for Vehicles

^ "Selecting the Right Paint Roller." Selecting the Right Paint Roller. Aubuchan Hardware, 2006. Web. 05 May 2012. .

^ "Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Paint"

^ "Storage and Disposal of Paint Facts"

^ "Paint Finish and Sheen Information; Info on Satin, Eggshell, Matte, and Other Paint Finishes." Professional Painting Contractor. Professional Painters, 2011. Web. 07 Apr. 2012. .

^ "road marking paint".

^ Bayliss, D.A.; Deacon, D.H. (2002). Steelwork corrosion control (2nd ed.). London: Spon. pp.13.6.6 Chalking. ISBN978-0-415-26101-2.

^ Xiaohui Wang; Ling Wang (2006) . "Measures and Test Techniques for Fungus Resistance to Aircraft Materials and Equipment" (PDF).

^ John W. Taylor; Joey Spatafora; Mary Berbee (1996). "Ascomycota".

^ A. Spurgeon, Watching Paint Dry: Organic Solvent Syndrome in late-Twentieth-Century Britain. Med Hist. 2006 April 1; 50(2): 167-188.

^ "Ethylene Glycol Mono-N-Butyl Ether". National Library of Medicine HSDB. Retrieved 2014-03-14.


Further reading

Bently, J. (Author) and Turner, G.P.A. (Author) (1997). Introduction to Paint Chemistry and Principles of Paint Technology. Unk. ISBN0-412-72320-4.

Talbert, Rodger (2007). Paint Technology Handbook. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. ISBN1-57444-703-3.

Woodbridge, Paul R. (Editor) (1991). Principles of Paint Formulation. Unk. ISBN0-412-02951-0.

Look up paint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to paint.








Wood (lumber)

Wood art


Boat building

Bow and arrow

Bush carpentry




Chainsaw carving

Chip carving





Japanese carpentry

Log building





Relief carving

Root carving


Segmented turning

Shingle weaving


Spindle turning

Timber framing


Wood carving


Wood flour



Cedar (Calocedrus, Cedrus)


Douglas fir




















Lignum vitae

Linden (lime, basswood)





















Milling machine

Mitre box

Moulding plane








Winding sticks

Wood scribe





























Crown of thorns






Hammer-headed tenon



Mason's mitre


Mortise and tenon




Tongue and groove









French polish

Heat bending


Paint stripper

Steam bending



Wood drying

Wood preservation

Wood stain


American Association of Woodturners

Architectural Woodwork Institute

British Woodworking Federation

Building and Wood Workers' International

Caricature Carvers of America

International Federation of Building and Wood Workers

National Wood Carvers Association

Society of Wood Engravers

Timber Framers Guild


Chainsaw mill




Wood splitting


Frame and panel

Frameless construction



Commons pageCommons

Authority control

NDL: 00573341

Retrieved from ""

Friday, 26 May 2017

13 Things Your Landscaper Won't Tell You: Expert Landscaping Tips Add to Home Value

"GMA" is teaming up with Reader's Digest on a special series of "13 Things Your ____ Won't Tell You." Add as much as 15 percent to your home's value with these expert landscaping tips.

1. Ditch the mower bag. Those grass clippings will become food for earthworms and microbes that will help make your lawn green and healthy.

2. Sure, the view from the street is important, but don't forget to look at your landscape from inside the house. If you have a room with a big window, make sure it looks good from there too.

3. Don't fill every inch of your space with plants and flowers. By next spring, you'll have a weeding and pruning nightmare.

4. That "pretty" red mulch you love? It has been found to contain arsenic and other harsh chemicals that can be harmful to children and pets and will contaminate your soil.

5. Hate bagging leaves? You don't have to. If there's just a light layer, go over them with your mower and leave them on your lawn. As they brea k down, they'll help limit weeds from popping up.

6. You can send a sample of your soil to a local agricultural agency to have it tested. Dig down six to seven inches deep and then gather two cups of dirt into sample bags. Mail them off to find out what nutrients you need.

7. If you find a flower you like, always buy more than one. Plant clumps of species in odd numbers, such as five or seven in Sprinkler System Rockwall one area, or repeat the groupings throughout your landscape for a unifying effect.

8. Do-it-yourself landscapers tend to make their planting beds too narrow and too close to the house. You want to extend your beds out at least one to two thirds of the house's height, if not more.

9. Laying weed fabric is generally a waste of money and time for the long term; we eds just grow on top of it. I once had a customer whose beds had seven layers of weed fabric, yet she still had weeds. I guess she kept thinking, If I put down just one more layer, the weeds will stop coming.

10. Most lawn fertilizers have about 30 percent nitrogen, which is way too much. Look for fertilizer with time-releasing water-insoluble nitrogen and use it only twice a year on a steady schedule, like on Memorial Day and after Labor Day. In general, well-irrigated and older lawns need less fertilizer.

11. Watch out for a gorgeous plant called purple loosestrife, or Lythrum salicaria, which a lot of nurseries still sell. Though it's inexpensive and has a lovely flower, it's an invasive species that will spread everywhere and choke out other plants.

12. To keep from overwatering your lawn, remember that one inch of water once a week is ideal, maybe once every five days in extreme heat, depending on your soil. Infrequent watering encourages roots to grow dee per to find groundwater, creating a stronger plant.

13. Looking at a color wheel is a great way to choose garden flowers. Colors that are opposite each other, like yellow and purple, look beautiful together.

For even more things your landscaper won't tell you, click here.

More 13 Things from Reader's Digest:

13 Things Experts Won't Tell You About Weight Loss

13 Things Your Real Estate Agent Won't Tell You

13 Things Your Grocer Won't Tell You

13 Things a Movie Theater Employee Won't Tell You

13 Things Your Pizza Guy Won't Tell You

Sprinklers href=""> href=''>